Abstract: Cytosine hydroxymethylation (5hmC) in mammalian DNA is the product of oxidation of methylated cytosines (5mC) by Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) enzymes. While it has been shown that the TETs influence 5mC metabolism, pluripotency and differentiation during early embryonic development, the functional relationship between gene expression and 5hmC in adult (somatic) stem cell differentiation is still unknown. Here we report that 5hmC levels undergo highly dynamic changes during adult stem cell differentiation from intestinal progenitors to differentiated intestinal epithelium. We profiled 5hmC and gene activity in purified mouse intestinal progenitors and differentiated progeny to identify 43425 differentially hydroxymethylated regions and 5325 differentially expressed genes. These differentially marked regions showed both losses and gains of 5hmC after differentiation, despite lower global levels of 5hmC in progenitor cells. In progenitors, 5hmC did not correlate with gene transcript levels, however, upon differentiation the global increase in 5hmC content showed an overall positive correlation with gene expression level as well as prominent associations with histone modifications that typify active genes and enhancer elements. Our data support a gene regulatory role for 5hmC that is predominant over its role in controlling DNA methylation states.
January, 2019 - Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - Gill Barnett
Abstract:The impact of weight loss and anatomical change during head and neck (H&N) radiotherapy on spinal cord dosimetry is poorly understood, limiting evidence-based adaptive management strategies. Conclusions: Differences between delivered and planned spinal cord D2% are small in patients treated with daily IG. Even patients experiencing substantial weight loss or anatomical change during treatment do not require adaptive replanning for spinal cord safety.
Abstract: The poor outcomes in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) prompted us to interrogate the pattern and timing of metastatic spread. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 388 samples across 18 individuals with EAC showed, in 90% of patients, that multiple subclones from the primary tumor spread very rapidly from the primary site to form multiple metastases, including lymph nodes and distant tissues-a mode of dissemination that we term 'clonal diaspora'. Metastatic subclones at autopsy were present in tissue and blood samples from earlier time points. These findings have implications for our understanding and clinical evaluation of EAC.
18 December, 2019 - Toxicologic Pathology - Kourosh Saeb-Parsy
Abstract: Significant advances in immunotherapies have resulted in the increasing need of predictive preclinical models to improve immunotherapeutic drug development, treatment combination, and to prevent or minimize toxicity in clinical trials. Immunodeficient mice reconstituted with human immune system (HIS), termed humanized mice or HIS mice, permit detailed analysis of human immune biology, development, and function. Although this model constitutes a great translational model, some aspects need to be improved as the incomplete engraftment of immune cells, graft versus host disease and the lack of human cytokines and growth factors. In this review, we discuss current HIS platforms, their pathology, and recent advances in their development to improve the quality of human immune cell reconstitution. We also highlight new technologies that can be used to better understand these models and how improved characterization is needed for their application in immuno-oncology safety, efficacy, and new modalities therapy development.
6 December, 2019 - Science - Kourosh Saeb-Parsy
Adult cancers often arise from premalignant clonal expansions. Whether the same is true of childhood tumors has been unclear. To investigate whether Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma; a childhood kidney cancer) develops from a premalignant background, we examined the phylogenetic relationship between tumors and corresponding normal tissues. In 14 of 23 cases studied (61%), we found premalignant clonal expansions in morphologically normal kidney tissues that preceded tumor development. These clonal expansions were defined by somatic mutations shared between tumor and normal tissues but absent from blood cells. We also found hypermethylation of the H19 locus, a known driver of Wilms tumor development, in 58% of the expansions. Phylogenetic analyses of bilateral tumors indicated that clonal expansions can evolve before the divergence of left and right kidney primordia. These findings reveal embryonal precursors from which unilateral and multifocal cancers develop.
23 October, 2019 - Nature - Kourosh Saeb-Parsy
Abstract: The colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence has provided a paradigmatic framework for understanding the successive somatic genetic changes and consequent clonal expansions that lead to cancer1. However, our understanding of the earliest phases of colorectal neoplastic changes-which may occur in morphologically normal tissue-is comparatively limited, as for most cancer types. Here we use whole-genome sequencing to analyse hundreds of normal crypts from 42 individuals. Signatures of multiple mutational processes were revealed; some of these were ubiquitous and continuous, whereas others were only found in some individuals, in some crypts or during certain periods of life. Probable driver mutations were present in around 1% of normal colorectal crypts in middle-aged individuals, indicating that adenomas and carcinomas are rare outcomes of a pervasive process of neoplastic change across morphologically normal colorectal epithelium. Colorectal cancers exhibit substantially increased mutational burdens relative to normal cells. Sequencing normal colorectal cells provides quantitative insights into the genomic and clonal evolution of cancer.
Abstract: The most common causes of chronic liver disease are excess alcohol intake, viral hepatitis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with the clinical spectrum ranging in severity from hepatic inflammation to cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The genome of HCC exhibits diverse mutational signatures, resulting in recurrent mutations across more than 30 cancer genes. Stem cells from normal livers have a low mutational burden and limited diversity of signatures8, which suggests that the complexity of HCC arises during the progression to chronic liver disease and subsequent malignant transformation. Here, by sequencing whole genomes of 482 microdissections of 100–500 hepatocytes from 5 normal and 9 cirrhotic livers, we show that cirrhotic liver has a higher mutational burden than normal liver. Although rare in normal hepatocytes, structural variants, including chromothripsis, were prominent in cirrhosis. Driver mutations, such as point mutations and structural variants, affected 1–5% of clones. Clonal expansions of millimetres in diameter occurred in cirrhosis, with clones sequestered by the bands of fibrosis that surround regenerative nodules. Some mutational signatures were universal and equally active in both non-malignant hepatocytes and HCCs; some were substantially more active in HCCs than chronic liver disease; and others—arising from exogenous exposures—were present in a subset of patients. The activity of exogenous signatures between adjacent cirrhotic nodules varied by up to tenfold within each patient, as a result of clone-specific and microenvironmental forces. Synchronous HCCs exhibited the same mutational signatures as background cirrhotic liver, but with higher burden. Somatic mutations chronicle the exposures, toxicity, regeneration and clonal structure of liver tissue as it progresses from health to disease.
17 October, 2019 - European Respiratory Journal - Robert Rintoul
BACKGROUND: Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening detects early-stage lung cancer and reduces mortality. We proposed a sequential approach targeted to a high-risk group as a potentially efficient screening strategy.
METHODS: LungSEARCH was a national multicentre randomised trial. Current/ex-smokers with mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were allocated (1:1) to have 5 years surveillance or not. Screened participants provided annual sputum samples for cytology and cytometry, and if abnormal were offered annual LDCT and autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB). Those with normal sputum provided annual samples. The primary end-point was the percentage of lung cancers diagnosed at stage I/II (nonsmall cell) or limited disease (small cell).
CONCLUSIONS: Our sequential strategy, using sputum cytology/cytometry to select high-risk individuals for AFB and LDCT, did not lead to a clear stage shift and did not improve the efficiency of lung cancer screening.
Despite modest improvements in 1- and 5-year survival lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer death in the UK . Unfortunately, around 70% of lung cancers are diagnosed at stage III or IV where the options for treatment with curative intent are greatly reduced . Although targeted therapies and immunomodulators are improving life expectancy in advanced disease they have efficacy in only a small proportion of cases and long-term survival remains low....
Abstract: The enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) functions in the citric acid cycle and loss of function predisposes to the development of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL), wild type gastrointestinal stromal tumour (wtGIST) and renal cell carcinoma. SDH-deficient tumours are most commonly associated with a germline SDH subunit gene (SDHA/B/C/D) mutation but can also be associated with epigenetic silencing of the SDHC gene. However, clinical diagnostic testing for an SDHC epimutation is not widely available. The objective of this study was to investigate the indications for and the optimum diagnostic pathways for the detection of SDHC epimutations in clinical practice. SDHC promoter methylation analysis of 32 paraffin embedded tumours (including 15 GIST and 17 PPGL) was performed using a pyrosequencing technique and correlated with SDHC gene expression. SDHC promoter methylation was identified in 6 (18.7%) tumours. All 6 SDHC epimutation cases presented with SDH deficient wtGIST and 3/6 cases had multiple primary tumours. No case of constitutional SDHC promoter hypermethylation was detected. Whole genome sequencing of germline DNA from three wtGIST cases with an SDHC epimutation, did not reveal any causative sequence anomalies. Herein, we recommend a diagnostic workflow for the detection of an SDHC epimutation in a service setting.
June, 2019 - Nature - Ben Simons
Abstract: Adult intestinal stem cells are located at the bottom of crypts of Lieberkühn, where they express markers such as LGR51,2 and fuel the constant replenishment of the intestinal epithelium1. Although fetal LGR5-expressing cells can give rise to adult intestinal stem cells3,4, it remains unclear whether this population in the patterned epithelium represents unique intestinal stem-cell precursors. Here we show, using unbiased quantitative lineage-tracing approaches, biophysical modelling and intestinal transplantation, that all cells of the mouse intestinal epithelium-irrespective of their location and pattern of LGR5 expression in the fetal gut tube-contribute actively to the adult intestinal stem cell pool. Using 3D imaging, we find that during fetal development the villus undergoes gross remodelling and fission. This brings epithelial cells from the non-proliferative villus into the proliferative intervillus region, which enables them to contribute to the adult stem-cell niche. Our results demonstrate that large-scale remodelling of the intestinal wall and cell-fate specification are closely linked. Moreover, these findings provide a direct link between the observed plasticity and cellular reprogramming of differentiating cells in adult tissues following damage5-9, revealing that stem-cell identity is an induced rather than a hardwired property.
Abstract: We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma-associated hypercoagulability leading to venous limb gangrene, managed successfully with argatroban and then dabigatran. Use of idarucizumab permitted diagnostic investigations, leading to targeted antineoplastic therapy with crizotinib, surgical resection with curative intent, and continued survival over 2 years after the index event.
20 May, 2019 - Nature protocols - Kourosh Saeb-Parsy
Pediatric liver transplantation is often required as a consequence of biliary disorders because of the lack of alternative treatments for repairing or replacing damaged bile ducts. To address the lack of availability of pediatric livers suitable for transplantation, we developed a protocol for generating bioengineered biliary tissue suitable for biliary reconstruction. Our platform allows the derivation of cholangiocyte organoids (COs) expressing key biliary markers and retaining functions of primary extra- or intrahepatic duct cholangiocytes within 2 weeks of isolation. COs are subsequently seeded on polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds or densified collagen constructs for 4 weeks to generate bioengineered tissue retaining biliary characteristics. Expertise in organoid culture and tissue engineering is desirable for optimal results. COs correspond to mature functional cholangiocytes, differentiating our method from alternative organoid systems currently available that propagate adult stem cells. Consequently, COs provide a unique platform for studies in biliary physiology and pathophysiology, and the resulting bioengineered tissue has broad applications for regenerative medicine and cholangiopathies.
16 May, 2019 - Nature Communications - Ultan McDermott
Many gene fusions are reported in tumours and for most their role remains unknown. As fusions are used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, and are targets for treatment, it is crucial to assess their function in cancer. To systematically investigate the role of fusions in tumour cell fitness, we utilized RNA-sequencing data from 1011 human cancer cell lines to functionally link 8354 fusion events with genomic data, sensitivity to >350 anti-cancer drugs and CRISPR-Cas9 loss-of-fitness effects. Established clinically-relevant fusions were identified. Overall, detection of functional fusions was rare, including those involving cancer driver genes, suggesting that many fusions are dispensable for tumour fitness. Therapeutically actionable fusions involving RAF1, BRD4 and ROS1 were verified in new histologies. In addition, recurrent YAP1-MAML2 fusions were identified as activators of Hippo-pathway signaling in multiple cancer types. Our approach discriminates functional fusions, identifying new drivers of carcinogenesis and fusions that could have clinical implications.
7 May, 2019 - European Journal of Surgical Oncology - Nicky Fearnhead
Abstract: The IMPACT (Improving the Management of Patients with Advanced Colorectal Tumours) initiative was established by the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland in 2017 as a consortium of surgeons (colorectal, hepatobiliary, thoracic), oncologists, radiologists, pathologists, palliative care physicians, patients, carers and charity stakeholders who will work together to improve outcomes in patients with advanced and metastatic colorectal cancer. To establish this initiative, better information is required to establish how further intervention is focused. This paper details the approaches used, and outcomes generated, from a priority setting exercise to inform the design of the IMPACT initiative.
3 May, 2019 - International Journal of Cancer - Richard Hardwick
Abstract: Cancers occurring at the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) are classified as predominantly esophageal or gastric, which is often difficult to decipher. We hypothesised that the transcriptomic profile might reveal molecular subgroups which could help to define the tumor origin and behaviour beyond anatomical location. The gene expression profiles of 107 treatment-naïve, intestinal type, gastro-esophageal adenocarcinomas were assessed by the Illumina-HTv4.0 beadchip. Differential gene expression (limma), unsupervised subgroup assignment (mclust), and pathway analysis (gage) were undertaken in R statistical computing and results were related to demographic and clinical parameters....
May 2019 - The Annals of the RCS - Nigel Hall
Abstract: The 2015 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines widened the referral criteria for the two-week-wait pathway for suspected lower gastrointestinal cancer. We implemented a straight-to-test protocol to accommodate the anticipated increase in referrals. We evaluated the impact of these changes for relevant pathway metrics and clinical outcomes using a retrospective cohort study with historic controls. Conclusion: Our straight-to-test protocol has resulted in a reduction in times to cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment, despite an increase in the number of referrals. The new referral criteria have considerable resource implications, but their implementation did not result in an increase in the total number of cancers diagnosed.
16 April, 2019 - Journal of Thoracic Oncology - Susan Harden
Abstract: We used phase-3 CONVERT trial data to investigate the impact of 18fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Conclusion - in CONVERT, survival outcomes were not significantly different in patients staged with or without 18F-FDG PET/CT. However, this analysis cannot support the use or omission of 18F-FDG PET/CT due to study limitations.
28 March, 2019 - Journal of Clinical Oncology - Robert Rintoul
Purpose: Prophylactic irradiation to the chest wall after diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been a widespread practice across Europe, although the efficacy of this treatment is uncertain. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of prophylactic radiotherapy in reducing the incidence of chest wall metastases (CWM) after a procedure in MPM. Conclusion: There is no role for the routine use of prophylactic irradiation to chest wall procedure sites in patients with MPM.
22 March, 2019 - Annual Review of Biochemistry - Gary Doherty
Abstract: The complexity of human cancer underlies its devastating clinical consequences. Drugs designed to target the genetic alterations that drive cancer have improved the outcome for many patients, but not the majority of them. Here, we review the genomic landscape of cancer, how genomic data can provide much more than a sum of its parts, and the approaches developed to identify and validate genomic alterations with potential therapeutic value. We highlight notable successes and pitfalls in predicting the value of potential therapeutic targets and discuss the use of multi-omic data to better understand cancer dependencies and drug sensitivity. We discuss how integrated approaches to collecting, curating, and sharing these large data sets might improve the identification and prioritization of cancer vulnerabilities as well as patient stratification within clinical trials. Finally, we outline how future approaches might improve the efficiency and speed of translating genomic data into clinically effective therapies and how the use of unbiased genome-wide information can identify novel, predictive biomarkers that can be either simple or complex.
1 March, 2019 - Journal of Breath Research
Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer related death in both the UK and USA. Development of diagnostic approaches that have the ability to detect lung cancer early are a research priority with potential to improve survival. Analysis of exhaled breath metabolites, or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an area of considerable interest as it could fulfil such requirements. Numerous studies have shown that VOC profiles are different in the breath of patients with lung cancer compared to healthy individuals or those with non-malignant lung diseases. This review provides a scientific and clinical assessment of the potential value of a breath test in lung cancer. It discusses the current understanding of metabolic pathways that contribute to exhaled VOC production in lung cancer and reviews the research conducted to date. Finally, we highlight important areas for future research and discuss how a breath test could be incorporated into various clinical pathways.
13 Feb, 2019 - Soft Matter
We demonstrate experimental control over tubule growth in giant unilamellar vesicles with liquid-liquid phase coexistence, using a thermal gradient to redistribute lipid phase domains on the membrane. As studied previously, the domains of the less abundant phase always partition towards hotter temperatures, depleting the cold side of the vesicle of domains. We couple this mechanism of domain migration with the inclusion of negative-curvature lipids within the membrane, resulting in control of tubule growth direction towards the high temperature. Control of composition determines the interior/exterior growth of tubules, whereas the thermal gradient regulates the length of the tubule relative to the vesicle radius. Maintaining lipid membranes under non-equilibrium conditions, such as thermal gradients, allows the creation of thermally-oriented protrusions, which could be a key step towards developing functional materials or artificial tissues. Interconnected vesicle compartments or ejected daughter vesicles as transport intermediaries towards hot/cold are just two possibilities.
13 February, 2019 - Nature Communications
Abstract: Bcl9 and Pygo are Wnt enhanceosome components that effect β-catenin-dependent transcription. Whether they mediate β-catenin-dependent neoplasia is unclear. Here we assess their roles in intestinal tumourigenesis initiated by Apc loss-of-function (ApcMin), or by Apc1322T encoding a partially-functional Apc truncation commonly found in colorectal carcinomas. Intestinal deletion of Bcl9 extends disease-free survival in both models, and essentially cures Apc1322T mice of their neoplasia. Loss-of-Bcl9 synergises with loss-of-Pygo to shift gene expression within Apc-mutant adenomas from stem cell-like to differentiation along Notch-regulated secretory lineages. Bcl9 loss also promotes tumour retention in ApcMin mice, apparently via relocating nuclear β-catenin to the cell surface, but this undesirable effect is not seen in Apc1322T mice whose Apc truncation retains partial function in regulating βcatenin. Our results demonstrate a key role of the Wnt enhanceosome in β-catenindependent intestinal tumourigenesis and reveal the potential of BCL9 as a therapeutic target during early stages of colorectal cancer.
8 January, 2019 - Nucleic Acids Research
Abstract: In vitro cancer cell cultures are facile experimental models used widely for research and drug development. Many cancer cell lines are available and efforts are ongoing to derive new models representing the histopathological and molecular diversity of tumours. Cell models have been generated by multiple laboratories over decades and consequently their annotation is incomplete and inconsistent. Furthermore, the relationships between many patient-matched and derivative cell lines have been lost, and accessing information and datasets is time-consuming and difficult. Here, we describe the Cell Model Passports database; cellmodelpassports.sanger.ac.uk, which provides details of cell model relationships, patient and clinical information, as well as access to associated genetic and functional datasets. The Passports database currently contains curated details and standardized annotation for >1200 cell models, including cancer organoid cultures. The Passports will be updated with newly derived cell models and datasets as they are generated. Users can navigate the database via tissue, cancer-type, genetic feature and data availability to select a model most suitable for specific applications. A flexible REST-API provides programmatic data access and exploration. The Cell Model Passports are a valuable tool enabling access to high-dimensional genomic and phenotypic cancer cell model datasets empowering diverse research applications.
23 November, 2018 - Science - Kourosh Saeb-Parsy
Abstract: The extent to which cells in normal tissues accumulate mutations throughout life is poorly understood. Some mutant cells expand into clones that can be detected by genome sequencing. We mapped mutant clones in normal esophageal epithelium from nine donors (age range, 20 to 75 years). Somatic mutations accumulated with age and were caused mainly by intrinsic mutational processes. We found strong positive selection of clones carrying mutations in 14 cancer genes, with tens to hundreds of clones per square centimeter. In middle-aged and elderly donors, clones with cancer-associated mutations covered much of the epithelium, with NOTCH1 and TP53 mutations affecting 12 to 80% and 2 to 37% of cells, respectively. Unexpectedly, the prevalence of NOTCH1 mutations in normal esophagus was several times higher than in esophageal cancers. These findings have implications for our understanding of cancer and aging.